3D printed bone tissue added with soy isoflavones to improve bone cancer treatment

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Soybean has been extensively studied for its estrogen and anti-estrogens effects on the human body. It is associated with reducing the risk of breast cancer and recurrence, improving heart and bone health, and reducing the risk of other cancers.

Now, researchers at Washington State University (WSU) have discovered the potential of soy in improving the treatment of bone cancer after surgery. They demonstrated that the slow release of soy-based compounds from the 3D printed bone-like scaffold resulted in a reduction of bone cancer cells, while establishing healthy cells and reducing harmful inflammation.

Their discovery “Controlled release of soy isoflavones from multifunctional 3D printed bone tissue engineering scaffolds” was published in “Acta Biomaterialia” magazine.

Controlled release of soy isoflavones from multifunctional 3D printed bone tissue engineering scaffolds

The researchers said: “In the field of natural medicine compounds in biomedical equipment, there is not much research. Using these natural medicines, although the control of the human body’s composition is still a key issue, they can be used with little or no side effects. Have an impact on human health.” 

Bone cancer is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cancers. Certain types of bone cancer mainly occur in children. Surgical resection is the most common treatment, but chemotherapy and radiotherapy can also be used. Unfortunately, every cancer treatment has risks and side effects. The main risks associated with surgery include infection, cancer recurrence, and damage to surrounding tissues. In order to remove the entire tumor and reduce the risk of recurrence, some surrounding normal tissue must also be removed. Depending on the location of the tumor, some bones, muscles, nerves or blood vessels may need to be removed. 

Researchers have been studying bone tissue engineering technology as an alternative strategy, using materials, scientific principles and advanced manufacturing techniques to develop effective biomedical devices. 

“The latest challenges in the management of bone tumors after surgery clarify the need for multifunctional scaffolds that can be used for residual tumor cell suppression, defect repair and simultaneous bone regeneration. From this perspective, 3D printing can create complex porous structures Various patient-specific implants with mechanical strength compatible with cancellous bone.” 

Soybean contains isoflavones (plant-derived estrogen), which has been shown to prevent the growth of cancer cells of many types of cancer and is not toxic to normal cells. Other potential health benefits of isoflavones include the prevention of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, hormone-dependent cancer and loss of cognitive function. 

Researchers used 3D printing technology to create patient-specific bone-like scaffolds including 3 main soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein and saccharin), and then slowly release these compounds into samples containing bone cancer and healthy bone cells . 

3 main soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein and saccharin)

The researchers pointed out: “Genistein is a well-known natural biomolecule, which has been shown in vitro to reduce the viability and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by 90% after 11 days.” The other two soy compounds can significantly improve the growth of healthy bone cells. . Using soy compounds in animal models can also reduce inflammation, which may benefit bone health and overall recovery. 

These findings open the door to the use of synthetic bone grafts as a treatment option.

The researchers said: “These results give us a deeper understanding of the use of synthetic bone graft substitutes as a drug delivery tool for treatment methods, and more importantly, demonstrate that local tumor cell suppression and bone cell proliferation are defective after surgery. Feasibility in restoration.”

The researchers expect to continue their work to study the specific pathways of gene expression of natural compounds and the benefits of integrating them into biomedical technology.

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